In Vitro Fertilization

How does IVF work?

During IVF, eggs collected from a woman's ovaries and sperm collected from a man are joined together in a lab to form embryos. Two, or sometimes three, embryos are transferred to a woman's uterus to establish a pregnancy. In most cases, IVF is done using hormone medicines to increase the chances of success. IVF include combinations of the following procedures

  • Stimulation of the ovaries and baseline ultrasound and monitoring ultrasounds
  • Baseline measuring and monitoring of estradiol levels
  • Cryopreservation of back-up semen specimen
  • Harvesting and culture of eggs (egg retrieval)
  • Sperm preparation and insemination of the eggs using Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
  • Culture of embryos
  • Preparation of embryos for transfer
  • Embryo transfer with ultrasound guidance
  • Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
  • Cryopreservation and thawing of sperm, eggs, and embryos
     

Intracytoplasmic Sperm injection (ICSI)

Male infertility and fertilization failure

Injecting sperm directly into the egg ensure that the egg is fertilized. This is helpful in men with abnormal semen analysis, women with severely decrease ovarian reserve, couples undergoing genetic screening of the sperm, and couples with previous fertilization failure. 

Embryo Culture

Day three verus day five embryo culture 

Experienced laboratory staff watch your embryos grow. All embryos are preferably grown to day 5/6 to identify the embryos with the greatest potential to suceed and give a live birth. 

Embryo Transfer 

Frozen versus fresh embryo transfer 

Your doctor with discuss with you the best type of embryo transfer with your. This will depend on may factors than include the following: Age, cycle outcome, number of embryos available for transfer, hormone levels, and the risk of ovarian hyperstimulaiton.

Pre Implantation Genetic Screening (PGS)

Genetic diagnosis and screening

Pre Implantation Genetic Screening (PGS): For couples who need testing for genetic conditions involving whole chromosomes or large areas of a chromosome. Appropriate for couples with multiple miscarriages. PGS increase pregnancy rates and decrease miscarriage rates. Pre Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) involves testing cells from embryos of couples who have a specific genetic condition they do not want to pass on to their children. 

Surgical sperm retrieval

Men who do not ejaculate sperm due to blocked or missing tubes in their reproductive system can have sperm retrieved from their reproductive tract. The retrieved sperm is cryopreserved for use in a future IVF cycle.